Here it is! This is the study guide I put together to study for the five-test PGA Level 1 Battery. It’s not easy to condense 461 pages (747 if you count the PowerPoint slides from the Seminar Manuals), but it’s a lot easier to study just 22.
This study guide is nothing sexy, but it’s effective. Feel free to copy and paste it into a Word document so you can print it out to study. I make no guarantees that what’s on this guide will actually appear on your test because each exam is different. Happy studying… and good luck!
PGA Level 1 Study Guide
Lesson 1: The PGA Business Planning Model
* Describe the business planning process and the PGA Business Planning Model
The business planning process is an organized plan that clearly describes explicit goals and objectives and a strategy for accomplishing them. It is an ongoing, dynamic process that defines an organization, its future direction, and success. It establishes why the business exists, charts a course from a current state to a desired future destination, defines goals, objectives, strategies, and action plans to chart the course, and establishes and reinforces an organization’s vision and core values.
The PGA Business Planning Model includes five phases: define the business, assess the current state of the business, develop business goals, objectives, and related strategies, prepare financial forecasts and budgets, and monitor performance.
* Understand the difference between long-term and short-term planning
Long-range plans are usually 3-5 year plans. Short-term planning is one year or annual.
* Use case studies to learn how to apply business planning concepts to real-world scenarios
Lesson 2: Define the Business
* Define “the business” at the facility level in terms of vision, core values, facility characteristics, and mission
Input from key stakeholders is used to establish the facility’s mission (purpose), vision (phrase that paints a picture), and core values (individual words that shape mission, vision), create a facility/business profile, identify core business areas, understand the market, describe target customers, and identify key competition. It is revisited on an annual basis. An organization’s vision is a statement that describes where the organization wants to be in an ideal future.
Lesson 3: Assess the Current State of the Business
* Assess the current state of the business
Assessing the current state of the business means understanding and utilizing different types of performance data, assessing core business areas, conducting a SWOT analysis, and prioritizing the findings.
There are two types of performance data to consider when analyzing the success of a business; quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative information (usually financial or statistical data) is clearly defined and less susceptible to differences of opinion among people interpreting the information. Qualitative data can often be interpreted in multiple ways, based on individual opinions and differences in context or presentation. Qualitative data cannot usually be expressed as a number or quantity of something.
* Identify internal and external factors bearing on business success
Internal data sources are under the facility’s direct control, because they are determined by the facility operations; these include staffing, course maintenance, types of amenities, and business marketing and promotions – basically, any information that can be generated onsite. External data sources are important to understand and contextualize performance but are outside of the facility’s control, such as the performance of competitors, development of nearby housing, government regulations or assessments that may influence play, the weather, and local and economic conditions.
* Conduct a SWOT analysis
It is critical to organize the data in such a way that it reveals a systematic assessment of the business in terms of positive and negative implications. SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. It provides a structured method for assessing business conditions and identifying and prioritizing key success factors. Strengths and Weaknesses are considered “internal” factors, or factors that can be controlled by the facility. Opportunities and Threats are usually considered “external” factors, or factors that generally cannot be controlled by the facility.
Lesson 4: Develop Business Goals, Objectives, and Related Strategies
* Develop appropriate business goals and objectives based on a facility profile and SWOT analysis
Goals are what you intend to accomplish in the long term (3-5 years, multiple business cycles). Objectives are what you intend to accomplish in the short term (within 1 fiscal year or less).
* Develop strategies to achieve long-term business goals and short-term business objectives
Strategies support the goals and objectives and can be operational, financial, or promotional. Goals and objectives should be SMART (specific, meaningful, achievable, realistic, and time-oriented). Strategies define what you will do to achieve an objective. Action plans define the specific “how to” implement strategies.
Lesson 5: Prepare Financial Forecasts and Budgets
* Analyze financial histories and create financial forecasts
Preparing forecasts and budgets consists of analyzing financial history, making assumptions, and developing forecasts. That forecast distributed over 12 months or a fiscal year becomes an annual operating budget. Horizontal analysis usually centers on a specific revenue or expense metric. There are two major types of horizontal analyses: linear trend analysis, which evaluates positive and negative trends over time and base year analysis, in which the category’s values are compared to one benchmark year. Vertical analysis involves comparisons among values in the same column of a forecast or budget for a given fiscal year, such as cost of goods sold compared to total sales or expenses compared to revenues.
* Prepare an operating budget
There are three main types of budgets: operating budgets, cash flow budgets, and capital budgets. When developing an operating budget, the professional takes the figures from the annual forecast and realistically estimates when revenues and expenses will occur over the year. A cash flow budget projects how much money a facility will have in the bank at the end of every month or week – actual dollars in and out. A capital budget projects the expenses associated with those purchases and large-scale projects like construction or renovations of a course, or acquisition of large-scale equipment that will be used for more than one year.
Lesson 6: Monitor Performance
* Monitor performance and modify the plan or operations, if required, at regular intervals
Monitoring performance is systematically tracking performance and key metrics to objectives, strategies, and budget vs. actual performance. Variances are monitored daily, weekly, and monthly before they are analyzed and timely adjustments are made.
Lesson 1: PGA Customer Relations Concepts
* Discuss the business value of effective customer relations
Customers define what constitutes good service. Decades of research have shown that the key to greater profitability for virtually any business is a strong customer relations orientation, resulting in consistently higher customer satisfaction. Systematic customer relations practices enable staff to be proactive, not reactive. Using the PGA Customer Relations Model can help you stay proactive.
* Describe the essential components of the PGA Customer Relations Model
Customer Perspective – customers define the service; ultimately, the customers’ perception is what counts, not just the opinions of the organization leaders or employees.
Moments of Truth – occur any time a customer has an opportunity to evaluate the quality of a facility’s products and services.
Resources, Staffing, Systems – facilities must have sufficient Resources, Staffing, and Systems in place to support customer relations efforts and provide outstanding service. Since these three elements are interrelated, a golf facility will find it difficult to deliver superior customer service if it is deficient in any one of these areas.
Positive Engagement Routines
The PGA Experience
* Identify and define Moments of Truth
Interactive Moments of Truth involve direct contact between the customer and a staff member, such as when checking in for a tee time. Non-interactive Moments of Truth occur when a customer has the opportunity to evaluate a product or service without employee contact, such as locating the golf shop using only facility signage.
Lesson 2: Interaction Strategies
* Recognize the four Interaction Strategies and how to apply them in a variety of routine and challenging customer situations
Directing – gives the professional the greatest control in interactions with customers that may have limited knowledge or experience about how to proceed, or lack of initiative and willingness to proceed in a certain manner. Desired outcome: compliance
Convincing – allows the golf professional to maintain control of the interaction and eventual outcome but builds the solution to a problem or completion of a task around the needs of the customer. Desired outcome: agreement
Involving – requires the golf professional to invite the customer’s input and to share in the solution to a problem or the best way to proceed in a specific situation. Desired outcome: participation
Supporting – gives most of the control to the customer. When using this strategy, the golf professional understands that the customer has sufficient knowledge, expertise, or experience to carry out a specific task or solve a problem. Desired outcome: commitment
Lesson 3: Interpersonal Skills
* Identify the seven Interpersonal Skills and how to apply them in a variety of routine and challenging customer situations
State your purpose clearly – state the purpose of the interaction succinctly to others, so they understand the intent and can respond appropriately.
Providing a compelling rationale – communicate the benefits of pursing a preferred course of action, using a logical rationale, while providing compelling reasons for not adopting an alternative course of action.
Encouraging open expression – draw others into the discussion and encourage them to express their thoughts, feelings, and points of view.
Showing understanding – actively listen and restate what others have expressed, in order to accurately capture their intent without passing judgement.
Giving and inviting specific feedback – provide a forum in which all parties can talk about how they are affected by the behavior of others in a way that minimizes defensiveness and balances all opinions.
Reframing difficult situations – discover new solutions by taking a broader, more positive perspective in situations that appear to be deadlocked.
Acting with integrity – through words and actions, demonstrate a positive set of principles and personality traits, such as dependability and trustworthiness.
Lesson 4: Initiating the PGA Experience
* Initiate the PGA Experience using a systematic greeting and engagement process
Always begin with a positive acknowledgement of the customer. Organize the interaction around the customer’s interests and needs. Pay attention to what the customer wants and demonstrate this attention whenever possible. Respond to the customer’s needs with understanding and genuine interest. Look for outcomes that are valued by the individual customer and satisfy all parties involved. Strive to make specific promises to the customer and never fail to keep a promise. Whenever possible, provide an extra special touch that exceeds the customer’s expectations.
The key steps for virtually any process to engage customers are: greet in a warm and welcoming fashion, listen to the customer to uncover needs, assess the situation in terms of matching customer needs with products and services, offer a specific solution or action steps, follow through on the offer, make an extra effort to delight the customer and exceed expectations.
Lesson 1: Developing Tournament Business
* Analyze the role of tournament business at a golf facility
Tournament business must support the long-term vision and goals for a facility, support annual business objectives for the facility or the golf operations business plan, and complement other promotional and operational strategies. Tournaments can generate rounds or revenue, provide amenities for members, attract new members, enhance the facility image, maximize the number of rounds played, market and promote the facility, grow the game of golf, and promote competitive play.
* Identify tournament business objectives and the strategies to achieve them
Produce objectives that support achievement of golf operations and overall facility goals, use SMART criteria to frame annual tournament objectives, generate specific tournament strategies and action plans, and track progress on a weekly or monthly basis.
* Define a tournament’s purpose and develop an event that meets that purpose for the customer
Ask plenty of questions to identify the purpose. The purpose will heavily influence the format and duration. Plan events that take advantage of facility and course strengths, and employ a format that is fun for everyone and provides a chance to compete.
Lesson 2: Planning and Preparing the Tournament Event
* Plan, organize, and promote events
You have to know your tournament before you can start promoting it. There are two separate marketing concerns. Are you promoting tournament business as a whole or are you promoting a specific tournament? The most important considerations for both are the audience and the purpose. Don’t lose sight of the strategy of the tournament. Promote that strategy so that it upholds your mission and core values. Identify promotional strategies that align with business objectives, reach specific customer segments, and involve principal media/channels to target customers.
* Organize staff to meet tournament implementation schedules and budget requirements
The tournament team consists of a Tournament Director/Coordinator, golf operations staff members, golf shop staff, the course superintendent, starters, rangers, and food & beverage staff. Constant communication among departments and staff is vital for the tournament to run smoothly. Develop a master schedule for each tournament. Create a budget with revenues and expenses.
Lesson 3: Running the Tournament
* Prepare the course and facility for an event
When preparing the course, refer to checklists and documents used during planning. The Tournament Director needs to coordinate with the course superintendent and the tournament committee to achieve this goal. Base the course setup on the player’s skill level and the event format/purpose, and consider pace of play. The superintendent is the most important person when it comes to course prep. The Head Golf Professional should mark the course, not the superintendent.
* Communicate effectively with players, staff, and officials during an event
Include information on format, handicap, rules, course conditions and markings. Get a hard card for your course. Include information on immovable obstructions or ground under repair. List all Local Rules, and distribute them to players at check-in or on the first tee. This allows for any questions the players may have to be answered. To maintain overall control, an experienced Tournament Director will frequently patrol the course with some kind of communication device such as a radio or cell phone. Adhere to timetables. Timing is essential.
* Manage Rules situations and make rulings during events
Local Rules cover abnormal conditions on the course that may interfere with play. You may not waive the Rules of Golf, and they may not be introduced or altered after a stroke play round has started. Supplemental Local Rules are used to revised posted Local Rules and generally result from abnormal weather or course conditions. They supersede all other posted Rules.
* Describe all critical tasks required for tournament execution
Preparing the practice area – determine if the range is included in the tournament package and post directional signage to and from. Place sponsoring organization signage on the range, and have range balls and teeing areas ready for participants.
Bag drop and check-in – create a strong first impression. Use a formal greeting and confirm name, starting time, and tee assignment. Check-in and registration should be easy to find and be organized and well-staffed.
Sponsor signage and course contests – decide in advance if special signage for hole or tournament sponsors is needed. Alert players to special conditions or contests.
Golf car staging/post-tournament clean-up – conveys a professional atmosphere, creates excitement, promotes orderly posting of course/play information, and encourages a timely start.
Golf shop retail requirements
Scoring, prizes, awards ceremony – make sure someone is explicitly assigned to receive scorecards. The scoring area should be near the last green but away from play. Have an ample supply of summary sheets. Assign multiple people to the scoreboard and scoring area.
Food & beverage communication – compile useful information for out-of-town guests.
Safety and health – first aid facilities, ambulance, water, toilets, and weather contingencies (heat, cold, rain)
Lesson 4: Reviewing the Tournament
* Review a tournament and suggest improvements for future events
Gather customer feedback and gauge customer satisfaction for each event. Determine if individual tournaments meet objectives for the facility and the client. Make improvements to the same or similar type of event in the future. Ensure that overall facility tournament business objectives are achieved (analyze information across many tournaments). Discover how to improve the facility’s overall tournament operations. Collect and analyze key information and data from financial performance (revenues and expenses compared to the budget) and game statistics to customer satisfaction. The information can be summarized through financial reports, competition summaries, customer satisfaction summaries, noting any significant problems observed, and recording recommendations for future events. Some marketing should take place after the tournament and the information collected should be used in the future. Taken as a whole, information on past tournaments shows the state of the facility’s overall tournament operations.
Introduction to Teaching and Golf Club Performance
Part I – Knowledge of Learning
Lesson 1-1: Introduction to How Students Learn
* Explain how students learn golf knowledge and skills and identify implications for teaching
Golf skill learning is a process where cognitive motor strategies (motor programs or plans) emerge, and neural networks and the behavior they mediate change through practice and experience. Simply put, it is the process of finding solutions to movement problems. The solution to the movement problem emerges from interaction among the student, the skill, and the learning environment. It is a new motor program for moving to perform the skill effectively, but the motor program is what is learned. The three phases of motor skill learning are early (cognitive), intermediate (associative), and advanced (autonomous). The early phase of learning begins when the new skill or correction is introduced, demonstrated, or explained by the teacher. The student understands how to perform the skill and searches for a motor program to produce the desired movements. In the intermediate phase, the student learns to execute the movements of each golf skill more autonomously. The student improves accuracy and consistency. In the advanced phase, the skill or correction can be performed automatically with no conscious attention or cognitive thought.
Lesson 1-2: How Students Process Information When Learning
* Explain how students process information when learning golf skills
Learning is about acquiring knowledge, knowledge application, physical and mental skills, attitudes, and strategies through practice and experience. Memory is an internal representation of an event, experience, or something learned and is about its storage and retrieval. Forgetting refers to the loss of a stored event, experience, or something learned. Retention refers to the persistence or durability over time of something learned. It is essential in both recognition (the memory of a feeling) and recall (retrieving something previously learned and performing it) memory. Students’ learning styles provide a basis for helping teaching appropriately adapt their teaching in relation to how their students prefer to process information when they learn (visual, auditory, or kinesthetic). The basic closed-loop information processing model consists of input, processing (phases or stages), output (response), and feedback. Processing refers mainly to integrating and interpreting (or perceiving) the input and determining (via a decision-making process) the appropriate response. Output is the response or behavior in the form of muscular action or glandular activity. A golf swing is output in the form of a muscular action response. Feedback refers to the information that arises as a consequence of a response. It can be received during or after the execution of the output (golf swing).
Students process information when learning in three phases. The short-term sensory (STS) phase is the 2-3 seconds (or less) in which information is processed to the primary sensory projection areas of the brain where sensation occurs. Information then moves from the STS phase to the short-term memory (STM) phase. It’s involved in the first 60 seconds after the presentation of new information and is a system that loses information rapidly. Either the information is not attended to and lost or it’s attended to, rehearsed, and actively processed for transfer to long-term memory (LTM). Through practice, the information and golf skill being rehearsed and practiced begins to be consolidated in the form of structural changes in the nervous system. It takes minutes, hours, days, weeks, or longer depending on the complexity of the golf skill or correction to be learned.
Two kinds of feedback are received and evaluated. Intrinsic feedback comes solely from the student and arises as a natural consequence of the skill being performed. Augmented feedback comes from a source external to the performer that supplements the intrinsic feedback (video, training aid, and corrections given by a teacher).
Lesson 1-3: Principles of Effective Practice
* Identify and explain the principles of effective practice
Practice purposes or goal usually come from both the teacher and the student. There are three ultimate purposes or goals for practicing. One purpose is skills development or learning, which involves learning the golf skills needed to play the game at the level the student wants to reach. Another purpose is skills maintenance or retention, which involves simply physically practicing the skills that the student has already acquired in order to retain them. A third purpose is skills transfer, which involves learning to transfer the skills students have acquired on the practice range to their play on the golf course.
It is absolutely essential that students practice the right things: the golf, mental, course management, and playing skills fundamental to improving anyone’s game. The right way to practice depends on the purpose or goal of the practice session (skills development or learning, skills maintenance and retention, skills transfer, and enjoyment or recreation). Skills practice is the type of practice most often used for skills development. It’s used for learning individual golf skills and students learn to improve their execution by repeatedly performing it. Skills practice has a limitation: it’s not designed to optimize the transfer of golf skills to play on the course. In transfer practice, the student practices like he or she will play. It’s especially effective for learning to perform golf skills in various playing contexts, including cognitive skills and processing (pre and post-shot routines) that accompany these skills as well as related knowledge applications needed during play. Practice the right amount, practice with relevant feedback, and practice when motivated.
Lesson 1-4: How Junior Golfers Learn
* Explain how juniors learn golf knowledge and skills and identify implications for teaching
Developmental movement changes have six common characteristics: qualitative, sequential, cumulative, directional, multifactorial, and individual. The movement patterns five and ten year olds use to achieve their golf swings differ qualitatively. Many of their movement skills develop in an orderly sequence over time (sequential). Developmental movement change is built upon previous capabilities that came about through the combined influences of growth, maturation, and learning (cumulative). Developmental movement change progresses toward some goal (directional). It does not result from changes in a single variable but from the combined influence of many variables acting together (multifactorial). Although the general sequence of developmental change in movement behavior is the same for all juniors, the rate of change differs from one junior to another (individual).
A junior is ready to learn when he or she has the minimal abilities necessary to begin to acquire golf skills in a meaningful way. Some juniors will not be ready to learn because they are not sufficiently mature of capable cognitively and physically to learn golf skills in a meaningful way. If this is the case, the teacher can modify the golf skills or wait until the junior develops further.
Early Childhood (2-6 years) – play and exploration years; short attention spans; like to play, experiment, and explore; ideal age for learning a variety of fundamental movement skills or patterns; specialization is not recommended; learning environments must be individualized; emphasis on guided discovery
Late Childhood (7-12 years) – sampling years; growing interest in golf skill proficiency; competitive spirit; individual differences in performance based on maturation, talent, and experience; understand the need for practice; ideal period for learning golf skills; capable of specializing in golf, though not recommended
Adolescence (13-18 years) – specialization years; period of rapid growth; physical development may plateau; great individual differences due to differences in gender, growth, and maturation; appropriate period for formal instruction; ideal age range for specializing in golf; not too late to begin to learn
Part II – Knowledge of Teaching
Lesson 2-1: Lesson Progression
* Structure an effective golf lesson
Opening the lesson – make the student feel comfortable, make eye contact. Four questions to ask: What is your previous athletic experience? How would you describe your personality? How is your health and physical condition? What are your learning goals?
Establish lesson goals – formulate a meaningful, achievable goal. Limit the number of goals to between one and three goals per lesson and prioritize those goals. To give the lesson purpose and focus, review the lesson goals often, not just at the beginning of the lesson.
Identify main points – many effective teachers will state both the lesson goal and the main points in the early portion of the lesson. The lesson should include no more than five main points, preferably fewer.
Selecting appropriate activities – the teacher must select appropriate activities that will lead to the student achieving the lesson goals. The activities or events must be selected with the desired outcome of the lesson in mind. They should lead to the student permanently achieving the goals as efficiently as possible.
Organizing activities to achieve the lesson goal – a sound lesson requires appropriate instructional or practice activities that are organized in a way that takes the student progressively through the lesson to the successful completion of the lesson goal. Start with the foundation, build one point at a time, and build on success and increase the challenge.
Closing the lesson – this is the most important part of the lesson. Review and summarize main points, highlight successes, and give practice suggestions.
Lesson 2-2: Analyzing Student Needs and Setting Goals
* Analyze students’ instructional needs and set clear, purposeful learning and practice goals
Focused observation occurs when a teacher observes a student’s skill performance with the intent to identify strengths and weaknesses in his or her movements. Teachers who are more proficient at analyzing golf swings understand how the components of a golf skill work together, perceive large, meaningful chunks of information during their observations, and recognize how the performance of one component affects the next. This is known as a pattern recognition system. A teacher observes golf swings in order to determine what information (key points and relevant cues) will be most help to a particular student at a particular lesson. When a teacher is able to identify a pattern in a golf swing, he can then trace back through each element and look for the symptom or cause of a problem. Skilled teachers focus on important factors that are under the student’s control and critical to skill execution. Other things that will help: spending the right amount of time on observation, using knowledge stores, making anticipatory responses, and asking questions.
There are five characteristics that comprise an effective goal. Effective goals are SMART: specific (state an intention to be fulfilled), meaningful (represent important steps toward fulfilling the student’s needs and desires), achievable (tied to actions that the student has direct control over and is capable of performing), realistic (within the limits of the student’s abilities), and time-oriented (should have a target time or date when the goal should be achieved).
Lesson 2-3: Explanations and Demonstrations
* Deliver effective explanations and demonstrations during a golf lesson
Make a good first impression, start with an overview, get student attention and interest, keep student attention and interest, clearly signal changes, maintain a brisk pace, use stories, metaphors, and analogies, make clear points, make points boldly, simply, repeatedly, and progressively.
There are seven keys to effective demonstrations: plan and prepare, strive for clarity, show passion and enthusiasm, use proper voice projection, vary vocal pitch, pause before and after important points, and act confidently.
Modeling is a set of signals that is mimicked by others. A clear and accurate model provides a powerful information package for the student. Demonstrations are a type of model that conveys specific information about how to perform a skill or activity. There are several factors that assist students in getting the most from a demonstration: using appropriate demonstrations, ensuring student attention, using multiple demonstrations (teachers should demonstrate the skill several times), using periodic demonstrations (offer demonstrations periodically over the course of the lesson rather than at only one point), ensuring technical correctness (rehearse and practice the skills to be modeled before the lesson), cues for key points (identify the important parts of the skill), and verbal rehearsal (instruct the student to follow along out loud).
Lesson 2-4: Self-Assessment of Teaching Skills
* Engage in self-assessment of teaching skills and competencies
In order to improve, instructors need accurate and pertinent information about which of their instructional skills needs to be improved. Instructional improvement begins with the teacher honestly questioning his or her assumptions about teaching, common actions during lessons, and searching for solutions to important and compelling problems. Analyzing the observable actions of a teacher is a three step process. First, the teaching behavior must be observed in order to identify its qualities. The second step in the assessment is analysis through checklists or rating scales. The third and final step in analyzing teaching behavior is evaluating the teaching observations and analysis results.
A written diary or journal of teaching episodes is a good way to catalog and explore the decisions made by a teacher.
Mentors are people with whom a teacher can discuss goals and aspirations and who offer sound advice and professional practices.
Becoming a better teacher requires sustained, deliberate practice of specific instructional skills. Highly-skilled teachers are models of fluid, elegant, and deceptively effortless instructional behavior. Several instructional routines commonly used by effective instructors include: initiating the lesson with a statement of goals, interviewing students to gauge the level of understanding of the material, offering immediate, positive feedback, and closing the lesson with a review of the main instructional points.
Whether the skill is a new instructional strategy, an oral presentation technique, a new technology, or a planning scheme, it can only be mastered in the trial and error of sustained practice. One logical outcome of self-assessment is to seek alternatives to the way things are currently being done.
Part III – Knowledge of the Game
Lesson 3-1: Introduction to the Full Swing
* Recognize and apply the appropriate clubhead path and clubface position information to improve a golfer’s performance
Ball Flight Laws (5)
1. Clubhead speed – the velocity with which the clubhead is traveling. Speed influences distance and trajectory.
2. Centeredness of contact – the exactness with which the ball makes contact on the face of the club relative to the percussion point or sweet spot. Centeredness influences distance.
3. Angle of approach – the angle formed by the descending or ascending arc of the clubhead on the forward swing in relation to the slope of the ground. Angle of approach influences distance and trajectory. A steeper angle of approach creates more backspin, more lift, and therefore, less distance.
4. Clubhead path – the direction of the arc described by the clubhead in its travel away from and then back toward the target. Path influences direction.
5. Clubface position – the angle of the leading edge of the clubface relative to the swing path (open, square, or closed). Position influences direction.
Clubhead speed is influenced by five human variables: physical strength, body flexibility, swing technique, leverage (extended lead arm at impact), and neuromuscular coordination (using the right muscles at the right time with the correct force).
Clubface closed = pull hook, hook, push hook
Clubface square = pull, straight, push
Clubface open = pull slice, slice, push slice
Clubface override – the observed fact that face position on curving shots has markedly more effect than path position. The greater the speed, the closer the ball will start out on the swing path. The slower, the closer it will start on the face position direction.
Pre-Swing Principles (3)
Grip (direction) – the placement, positioning, pressure, and precision related to applying the hands to the club.
Aim (direction) – the alignment of the clubface and body in relation to the target. Aim has a strong influence on producing the correct path but doesn’t guarantee it.
Set-up (distance, direction) – the player’s posture, ball position, stance, weight distribution, and muscular readiness. Set-up can influence all five laws. Ball position affects the angle of approach and trajectory.
In-Swing Principles (11)
Swing plane (direction) – the tilt and direction of travel of the inclined plane made by the club shaft. It’s determined by the angle of the club shaft relative to the ball and the ground. Plane determines the path and influences trajectory. The right forearm position strongly influences plane.
Arc width (distance) – the degree of extension of the arms and hands away from the center of rotation during the swing.
Arc length (distance) – the distance the clubhead travels in the backswing and forward swing.
Wrist position (direction) – the relationship of the back of the lead arm and lead wrist to the face of the club and swing plane when the player reaches the top of the backswing.
Lever system (distance) – the combination of levers formed by the lead arm and the club during the backswing. Adding a second lever by cocking the wrists substantially increases clubhead speed.
Timing (distance, direction) – the proper sequence of body and club movement to produce the most efficient result. The forward swing should follow this order: feet/legs, hips, shoulders/trunk, arms, and hands. The timing of the swing sequence influences the path the clubhead takes to the ball.
Release (direction) – when the player allows the arms, hands, body, and club to return to and through the correct impact position while freeing the power created in the backswing. Muscle tightness inhibits a natural release and forces the clubface to stay open or blocked, whereas lead wrist breakdown results in loss of face position control, producing both hooks and slices.
Dynamic balance (distance, direction) – the appropriate transfer of weight during the swing while maintaining body control.
Swing center (distance, direction) – the point near the top of the spine around which upper body rotation and swinging of the arms takes place. The swing center is the center of the circle.
Connection (distance, direction) – establishing and maintaining the various body parts in their appropriate relation to one another in the set-up and during the swing.
Impact (distance, direction) – the moment of truth in the swing. It involves the position of the body and club at the moment the clubhead delivers its full energy to the ball. The maximum speed should be reached at impact.
Lesson 3-2: Introduction to the Short Game
* Conduct appropriate assessments to determine the short game skill level of the golfer
If a player is putting poorly, there are four possible causes: a bad stroke, a bad system of reading putts, a bad attitude, or a bad putter (club). There are a few putting techniques that a majority support: eyes over or slightly inside the ball, set the clubface square to the target, position the ball forward of center, keep the body motion limited, use an accelerated stroke, be comfortable, and make solid contact by hitting the ball in the center of the face.
Chipping and Pitching
Chips are usually firmer-wristed, one-lever strokes while pitches may use more cocking of the wrists and hands to create a second lever. There are a few essentials that most teachers agree on: shorten the grip for greater control, grip pressure may be firm or light but never tight, hand pressure needs to be light enough to allow for wrist cock, the feet and hips are open to the target, the stance is narrower than a full shot, the ball is played in the center of the stance for normal chips and pitches, when a higher trajectory is desired the ball is positioned more forward in the stance, lean on the forward leg on chip shots, the arms should hang comfortably from the shoulders, and accelerate through the ball. Distance control is determined largely by clubhead speed, which is influenced mostly by the length of the backswing.
Chip shot technique – stance should be slightly open with the feet close together, grip down, weight more on the lead side, hands slightly forward or ahead of the clubhead, one-lever stroke with the wrists and hands quiet and the arms swinging from the shoulders.
Pitching technique – stance should be slightly open with stance narrower than a full shot, grip down, weight balanced, hands even with the clubhead, small amount of wrist break in the backswing.
Bunker play – no grip down, one-knuckle grip or open face grip, aim square to the target line or aim left with everything but the clubface, work the feet into the sand, ball placement forward (in line with instep of left foot), u-shaped swing (square stance), v-shaped swing (open stance). There are five ways to control distance out of the bunker: angle of approach (steep for short, shallow for long), opening the face for shorter distances, backswing length and pace, amount of sand taken, and length of follow through (shorter = reduced speed at impact, less distance)
Lesson 3-3: Fitness and Performance
* Demonstrate basic knowledge of anatomy and physiology and conduct a physical observation to identify movement capabilities and limitations that may affect a golfer’s performance
Bones are connected to each other with ligaments to form joints and muscles connect to the bones with tendons for the creation of leverage movements. The function of the skeleton is to support the body, protect organs, allow for movement, provide a mineral reservoir, and produce blood cells. In the golf swing, the skeletal system: supports soft tissue and points of attachment for muscles, protects the internal organs, and provides for the articulation of the joint through the angle of pull by the muscle to determine leverage and motion.
There are several types of bones. Long bones have a long axis and are part of the upper and lower extremities. Short bones are intended for strength and compactness and require limited movement. Flat bones are thin and are found in the cranium and thorax. Sesamoid bones are found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint (Ex: patella – kneecap). Irregular bones don’t belong in one of the other categories due to their peculiar shapes.
The skeleton can be classified as having two main compartments, the axial skeleton which consists of the torso and head and the appendicular skeleton, which consists of the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder girdle.
A joint occurs where one bone is directly connected to another by ligaments in order to allow movement. Muscles are connected to the bones by tendons for the creation of movement. There are three main types of joints: cartilaginous (connected entirely by cartilage), fibrous (connected by dense connective tissues), and synovial (most common, most movable). There are six types of synovial joints. Joint movement is important when determining golf swing faults and their corrections.
Muscles operate either voluntarily (require an impulse or thought sensory response) or involuntarily (operate primarily without thought – heart beating or eyes blinking). There are three types of muscles in the body: cardiac (form the walls of the heart), smooth (found within walls of organs), and skeletal (attached to the bones by tendons). Some muscles act as agonistic muscles (prime movers; serve main function for skeletal movement) while others are antagonistic (react to movement). Synergistic muscles work in conjunction with agonistic muscles. Fixator muscles keep the joints stable and allow the agonistic muscles to function appropriately. Muscles are capable of three types of contractions: isometric (length doesn’t change), concentric (muscle is shortened), and eccentric (muscle is lengthened).
Upper crossed syndrome occurs when the muscles on the anterior (or front) side of the body become tight and the muscles on the posterior (or back) side of the body become weak and lengthened. It can be identified in an individual who has rounded shoulders, a forward head or neck position, and winging scapulars.
Lower crossed syndrome involves the muscles of the hips, legs, and lower back. The hip flexors and quads become shortened and strengthened while the glutes and hamstrings become lengthened and weak. An individual’s belt line becomes lower in the front than the back and there is usually an arch in the lower back. They may also complain of tightness in the hamstrings. The syndromes create reciprocal inhibition, which happens when certain muscle groups will shut off and not function appropriately. Muscles are great compensators and find a way to keep performing a desired movement as best they can.
Initial observations include:
Head position (forward or side to side tilt) – a forward position creates a rounded golf posture resulting in an inability to maintain a proper spine angle. A tilt to the right or left causes the shoulder closest to the ear to be higher through portions of the swing.
Shoulder position (rounded, square, one lower than the other, scapular winging) – a round position creates a narrow swing motion or forces the hands to stay too close to the body.
Lower back (arched or flat)
Hip position (tilted one side higher, pelvic rotation forward or backward, flat glutes) – a hip position that causes an anterior tilt in the lower back region creates a restricted torso rotation and a change in spine angle at impact. A tilted hip position restricts torso rotation toward the higher hip.
Foot position (pronated or supinated)
Dominant stance (right or left) – creates an improper weight shift or hanging back.
Walking pattern (arm/leg cross-crawl action, shoulder rotation) – walking habits that don’t show a cross-crawl pattern or normal torso rotation will result in swings that are “over the top” or dominated by the upper body.
Lesson 3-4: Defining Golf Club Performance
* Define club performance terms and specifications and describe their effect on ball flight and player performance
There are ten important static numbers that need to be evaluated to determine the performance capability of a set of clubs:
1. Grip size = is measured at a point two inches below the butt cap on the end of the club. A grip that’s too large makes it harder for a player to release the club. A grip that’s too small can make the player release the club too early.
2. Club length = is measured from the top of the grip to where the shaft intersects with the sole of the club. A club that is too long or too short will affect the player’s balance, spine angle, and swing plane. It also affects centeredness of contact and lie angle, which affects direction. Length plays a role in both accuracy and distance.
3. Shaft flex = is important for ball flight direction and swing tempo. It is measured in terms of the frequency of vibration cycles per minute (CPM). If the shaft is too weak (CPM too low), the ball will tend to fly high left. If the shaft is too stiff (CPM too high), the ball will tend to fly low right.
4. Shaft weight = the actual weight of the shaft measured in grams.
5. Swing weight = the relationship between the grip end of the club and the head when balanced on a specialized balance scale with a 14” fulcrum point. It is expressed alphanumerically (D-5). If the swing weight is too low (club too light), the club will not have good feel and the player will have a hard time consistently returning the club face to the ball at impact. If the swing weight is too high (club too heavy), the club will feel unwieldy, the swing will be jerky, and the player will become fatigued.
Grams at tip: 2 grams = 1 swing weight point increase
Grams at butt: 4 grams = 1 swing weight point increase
Length: 1/2” = 3 swing weights
Standard grip: 9 point swing weight reduction
Oversize and cord grips: 10 point swing weight reduction
Light grip: 8 point swing weight reduction
Frequency: 1 swing weight point increase = 1 CPM decrease
1 swing weight point decrease = 1 CPM increase
Lead tape: 2 grams = 1 swing weight point increase
Shafts: 9 gram increase in shaft weight = 1 swing weight point increase
9 gram decrease in shaft weight = 1 swing weight point decrease
6. Total club weight = is measured on a weight scale in ounces or grams. It affects the golfer’s balance and tempo.
7. Lie angle = the angle formed between the shaft plane and the horizontal face plane (attitude). Lie is the primary influence on ball direction. For a right-handed golfer, if the lie angle is too upright, the ball will fly left. The player will hold the clubface open and block the shot. If the club lie angle is too flat, the ball will fly right. The player will tend to close the face early and pull or pull hook the shot. The greater the loft, the more influence lie angle has on ball direction.
8. Loft angle = is formed by the vertical shaft plane and the pitch of the face.
9. Face angle = the angle formed by the vertical shaft plane to the square face plane with no sole influence. It can be open, closed, or square.
10. Bounce angle = the angle formed by the bounce contact point on the club’s sole and the leading bounce edge of the clubface. More bounce = less dig. An alteration of a club’s loft angle will correspondingly change the club’s bounce angle. The relationship is 1:1.
There are four important dynamic club performance numbers that are derived from launch monitor data:
1. Ball speed = the velocity at which the ball travels (mph). The greater the coefficient of restitution (COR), the greater the ball speed for on-center hits.
2. Launch angle = the initial angle at which the ball leaves the clubhead (degrees). Angle of approach affects launch angle. Shaft flex also affects launch angle (softer = higher and more left; stiffer = lower and more right). The dynamic loft for woods and hybrids = loft angle +/- face angle (Ex: 9.5 degree driver, 2 degrees closed = 11.5 degrees dynamic loft).
3. Spin rate = the amount of backspin imparted to a ball when struck. It is measured in revolutions per minute (RPM).
4. Power transfer ratio (PTR) = the ratio of ball speed divided by clubhead speed. It’s known as the “smash factor.” A benchmark for good PTR is 1.50 or 150%, meaning the ball is traveling at 150% of the clubhead speed. If the clubhead is traveling 100 mph and the ball is traveling 150 mph, the PTR is 1.50.
Lesson 3-5: Developing Equipment Expertise
* Define what information is required to properly assess a player’s golf equipment
Instructors need to know the 14 club performance numbers for their students’ clubs.
Grip sizes = .90 (men’s standard), .915 (men’s 1/64” oversize), .085 (ladies’ standard)
Shaft kick point = the point in the shaft where the degree of bending is greatest. Lower kick points are located nearer the clubhead and produce higher launch and higher spin. Higher kick points are farther up the shaft toward the butt and produce lower launch and lower spin.
Clubhead weights = driver (205g), 3-wood (211g), 5-wood (219g), 2i-hybrid (230g), 4-iron (243g), 5-iron (250g), 6-iron (257g) 7-iron (264g), 8-iron (272g), 9-iron (280g), PW (280g), SW (300g)
Driver head size is measured in cubic centimeters (cc). Current models range from 350 cc to a USGA max of 460cc. Larger heads have higher MOIs. The larger the head, the higher its MOI and the more forgiving it will be on off-center hits. The greater the head breadth (distance from face to back), the deeper the center of gravity (CG) of the head and the higher the launch angle. The deeper the face, the higher the CG of the head and the lower the launch angle. The shallower the face, the lower the CG and the higher the launch angle. The larger the head, the more closed the face is to help square it at impact. The higher the COR, the more potential for higher ball speed. The deeper the hosel bore, the stiffer the shaft will feel and the lower the launch angle will be.
Lesson 3-6: Integrating Club and Teaching Knowledge
* Observe a player’s swinging motion, ball flight, and equipment to evaluate the effectiveness of their equipment
There are 14 club performance numbers for game improvement (10 static, 4 dynamic):
1. Grip size
2. Club length
3. Shaft flex
4. Shaft weight
5. Swing weight
6. Total club weight
7. Lie angle
8. Loft angle
9. Face angle
10. Bounce angle
1. Ball speed
2. Launch angle
3. Spin rate
4. Power transfer ratio (PTR)
When evaluating the effectiveness of a player’s equipment, the instructor should observe and record the range of ball flight (left, right, trajectory, and distance), the general motion of the club throughout the swing, the general motion of the player as he swings, and the equipment and club performance numbers (club angles, shaft, and grip).
Ball flight – In addition to the five ball flight laws, one of the most important swing principles is impact, or the position of the body and club at the moment the clubhead delivers its full energy to the ball.
Some reasons for employing launch monitors are: to identify ways to increase ball velocity by altering shaft length, shaft weight, COR, or swing weight, to help a player achieve optimal distance by finding the highest launch and lowest spin conditions for the player, and to identify optimal launch conditions for the player. The main point of launch monitor analysis is to find the maximum launch angle that produces the least amount of backspin to obtain maximum distance.
Golf Car Fleet Management
Lesson 1: The Importance of the Golf Car Fleet
* Describe the importance of the golf car to the golfer, the golf facility, and the golf professional
Golfer benefits – opens the game to golfers who are physically unable to walk, eliminates the need to carry or pull clubs in hot weather or over rugged terrain, extends years of play for many senior golfers, can speed up play if properly used, and generates facility income, which can be used to offset an increase in green fees.
Golf facility benefits – generates revenue and potential profits, which can help offset facility expenses, can generate more rounds of play, leading to more income from green fees, merchandise, and food and beverage sales, and can enhance a facility’s image and customer satisfaction when properly managed.
Golf professional benefits – provides an opportunity to demonstrate value to a facility and could increase personal income if compensation is tied to fleet financial performance.
* Identify the characteristics of a well-managed, profitable golf car fleet
Attractive cars in good condition, competitive prices, emphasis on customer service and satisfaction, efficient operating policies and procedures, proper preventative maintenance, repair, and storage, properly trained staff, and a good safety program.
* Describe the responsibilities of the fleet manager
Provide a high level of customer service and satisfaction, enhance the image and reputation of the facility, protect the facility’s investment in the fleet, and generate revenue and achieve profit goals. The fleet manager is also in charge of training and supervising the fleet staff, running the rental car program, recordkeeping, and developing a car rotation system to extend the life and value of the cars. The fleet manager will also have to deal with emergencies and resolve complaints if the cars are dirty, prone to breakdowns, if not enough are available, and if the staff is inadequately trained in policies, procedures, or customer relations.
Lesson 2: Fleet Operations
* Identify essential policies and procedures that are the foundation of a safe and efficient golf car rental program
The foundation of a successful golf car fleet includes basic rules and regulations that govern the rental program. Golfer professionals in charge of fleet operations will be required to develop and implement policies that will result in the safe and efficient use of golf cars. Renters should have a valid driver’s license to operate a motor vehicle, and a minimum age requirement could also be imposed. The facility should also have a written policy stating it has the right to refuse to rent a golf car to anyone. The facility needs to be sure that anyone who rents a vehicle is familiar with how to drive a golf car. Before cars are assigned, drivers should be informed of the facility’s operating and safety guidelines, as well as any restrictions that limit where golf cars can be driven. Every player who rents a golf car should sign a golf car rental agreement. The fleet manager should develop procedures for retrieving a disabled car and getting a replacement vehicle out to the golfer. All golf facilities need written policies and procedures outlining what to do in the event of an accident. An accident investigation should be documented in an official accident report. A good safety program (including properly documenting the facility’s safety efforts) can also reduce the facility’s insurance premiums and limit exposure to liability claims and lawsuits. Keeping details records is vital.
* Describe the fleet staffing requirements at a typical golf facility
The golf professional who manages the fleet will determine staffing requirements, delegate duties, and see that the staff is properly trained. For administrative purposes, one person will handle paperwork and oversee fee collection and recordkeeping. As for maintenance, a fleet of 75 cars will usually require the services of a full-time maintenance person. Facilities with fleets of less than 75 cars might prefer to have a part-time mechanic, share a serviceman on a rotating basis with another facility, or purchase a maintenance contract with an authorized dealer. Here is a breakdown of fleet staff organization:
Fleet manager – this person (usually the head professional) is responsible for administering the overall golf car operation from fleet planning to rental procedures to preventative maintenance. A fleet manager must also be thoroughly familiar with and meet safety requirement and guidelines specified by OSHA.
Fleet supervisor – often the assistant golf professional, this person helps the fleet manager in all areas, including renting the cars, training and scheduling other staff members, and keeping records.
Maintenance supervisor – this staff member is responsible for supervising the fleet mechanic and helping perform all daily maintenance procedures as recommended by the manufacturer. The maintenance supervisor also keeps records that detail preventative maintenance procedures and the overall condition of the cars.
Attendants – these employees transfer golf cars from the storage area to the staging area.
Maintenance staff – consists of mechanics. They make cosmetic and mechanical repairs as needed, maintain the supply of repair parts and tools, troubleshoot any mechanical problems, and perform recommended maintenance.
Lesson 3: Fleet Maintenance
* Identify the benefits and components of an effective fleet maintenance program and a proper storage facility.
In addition to avoiding customer relations problems, a proper maintenance program can lower overall repair costs, extend the life of the cars, and reduce accidents and liability claims. An effective maintenance program will result in the following: lower operating costs, lower maintenance and repair costs, less downtime for cars, increased revenue and higher return on investment, longer lifespan for the cars, higher train-in value (if purchased), and fewer accidents and safety risks. In addition to actual service performed on the cars, proper staff training and an effective fleet safety program can also be considered maintenance.
Adequate storage is another critical requirement for protecting the investment in the fleet. There are four major design considerations: location in relation to the clubhouse, adequate space and efficient layout, proper ventilation, and safety and security features. Ideally, the storage facility should be near the staging area where golfers get their cars. The maintenance shop should be located next to the storage area. The two main factors that determine the layout of a storage facility are the number of cars in the fleet and whether the cars use gas or electric power. As a guideline for determining square footage for a storage facility, divide the number of cars by a factor of .014 for the total space (about 70-75 square feet per car; 50 cars = 3,570 square feet of space). Proper ventilation requires the air within the building to be “turned over” a minimum of five times each hour. Exhaust fans should be put at the highest point of the roof.
Lesson 4: Fleet Planning
* Examine golf car needs in light of the facility’s mission, customers, and physical characteristics
The foundation of a successful fleet program begins with a clear understanding of what the facility wants to accomplish in terms of customer service and the financial bottom line. The facility’s mission statement can determine the overall objectives of the fleet plan and guide the process along the way. Golf car usage patterns, car preferences, age, and other characteristics of the facility’s customers and member are important factors to consider. Certain physical features of the golf course such as yardage, terrain, and car paths and its geographic area (climate) may influence fleet equipment requirements.
* Describe how to acquire a fleet
Most facilities will choose one of the three major manufacturers (Club Car, E-Z-GO, or Yamaha). Fleet acquisition questions to consider include: optional equipment, price, appearance, comfort/convenience, overall performance, efficiency/range, durability/longevity, reliability, and noise. The average price for a golf car is between $4,000 and $5,000.
Lesson 5: Fleet Finances
* Estimate fleet revenue, costs, and profit, and identify how budgeting changes will impact the financial bottom line
Assumptions need to be made based upon the following criteria: annual car demand (rounds per car), number of cars in the fleet, rental fee per round, acquisition costs for ownership (down payments, principal and interest on purchase loans), acquisition costs for leasing (down payments, lease payments/charges). To project net income, gross revenues and expenses must be estimated using some basic factors.
Gross revenue = rental fee per car x number of rounds per car x number of cars in fleet
To estimate gross revenue, a facility will need to make assumptions based on rental fees, car rounds, and the number of cars in the fleet. To estimate expenses, a facility will need to account for acquisition costs, operating expenses, and other costs.
* Perform a lease vs. purchase analysis and identify the benefits of each
For the individual facility, the decision must be based on a careful examination of a variety of factors including the facility’s financial situation including cash flow and cash consequences, current economic conditions (particularly interest rates and supply/demand for golf cars), and the type of deal it can negotiate and structure.
Leasing can free up money to invest in other parts of the golf operation (no capital expense). From a cash-flow standpoint, leasing is often the better option because the lease payment is usually less than the principal and interest payments on a loan. Leasing can reduce a facility’s maintenance responsibilities because servicing is included in many leases. If negotiated in the leasing contract, the facility can expand the fleet during the term of the lease giving it more flexibility to match the size of the fleet to demand.
Purchasing the cars will earn depreciation and tax credits. Owning the cars generally results in more equity. Any facility that can supply the same maintenance services as a dealer, at a reduced cost, will end up making more net dollars, although this usually requires pre-existing maintenance facilities, equipment, and staff. The more use a facility gets from a fleet of golf cars, the higher the return on investment. If the facility decides to turn the fleet over in four years, a fleet that has been taken care of will bring a higher trade-in value.
* Determine rental fees and promote ridership
Riding mandates are a touchy subject. If everyone is required to rent a car, revenues will increase dramatically. Most successful policies depend on the customers, location, and situation at a given facility. As a general rule, private and daily-fee courses are more likely to require riding than municipal courses. Economics is the primary factor because it’s a way to increase revenue and assure that the cars will be rented.
One way to set rental fees is to simply find out how much competitors charge for a ride. A facility should research prices at comparable facilities that are similar in type, mission, and clientele. Look at the age and condition of the cars, not just the prices. Read ads and trade publications to see what other facilities are charging. Use price data published by The PGA of America or other golf associations. This may include average prices charged by facility type, region, or ownership.
Consider offering special rates or promotions to encourage riding if it’s not already mandatory. Deals and promotions are a good way to fill golf car seats without overt price-cutting. Fleet staff should be on the lookout for innovative pricing offers. Then advertise and promote.
Extra Credit: Golf Car Fleet Management
Procedure manuals should spell out how policy decisions and essential operating tasks will be implemented. (p. 8)
Determining where the cars can be driven and where they will be restricted is a fundamental task to ensure the safety of customers and limit damage to the golf course. (p. 10)
Cars are not used in numerical order, but instead on a “first in/first out” basis. The first car in the sequence is not used again until the last car in the sequence has been rented. (p. 14)
Any car involved in the accident should be placed in storage and should not be altered, rented, or operated after the accident until it has been inspected by an insurance adjuster or representative of the leasing company. (p. 19)
When shopping for insurance, facilities should consider the following: choose the best insurer for the long term, not necessarily the one offering the lowest rates. A good insurer will help identify and reduce hazards and risks. (p. 22)
As for maintenance, a fleet of 75 cars will usually require the services of a full-time maintenance person. (p. 24)
The maintenance staff consists of mechanics. The maintenance staff makes cosmetic and mechanical repairs as needed, maintains the supply of repair parts and tools, troubleshoots any mechanical problems, and performs recommended maintenance (p. 25)
An effective fleet operations manual can include everything from a mission statement to a dress code. (p. 25)
Satellite control systems can control the speed of a car on a steep hill or in other dangerous areas and can even shut down the car if it is driven into certain areas. (p. 30)
Preventative maintenance includes the things that need to be done to the golf car on a regular basis, even if the car is functioning properly. (p. 32)
There are four major design considerations (storage requirements): location in relation to the clubhouse, adequate space and efficient layout, proper ventilation, and safety and security features. (p. 38)
Each car requires 70-75 square feet for storage. (p. 39)
Electric cars may require more space to accommodate the battery-charging equipment. (p. 39)
Proper ventilation requires the air within the building to be “turned over” a minimum of five times each hour. (p. 41)
The foundation of a successful fleet program begins with a clear understanding of what the facility wants to accomplish in terms of customer service and the financial bottom line. A logical first step in the process would be to look at the facility’s mission statement, which can determine the overall objectives of the fleet plan and guide the process along the way. (p. 42)
Fleet planning should include conducting research to verify that, to the degree possible, acquisition assumptions and maintenance priorities reflect the expectations and preferences of the facility’s clientele. (p. 43-44)
Gas cars perform better in cold weather and have a higher trade-in value. (p. 46)
Figure on approximately 75% of the fleet being rented out on a normal daily basis. (p. 48)
Facilities usually charge privately-owned cars a trail fee. In addition, some facilities charge a “right seat” or rider fee for individuals playing with the person in a privately-owned car. (p. 48)
Things to look for in a manufacturer or dealer: price and terms offered, location (local or nearest to the facility is best), and willingness to deal on leasing or purchasing terms. (p. 51)
When shopping and comparing, facilities should also: ask to keep a golf car for at least a week so those involved in the decision-making process can test drive it and do side-by-side comparisons with other brands and have the facility maintenance supervisor or mechanic check out the vehicle. (p. 51)
To get a better idea of potential profits, a fleet manager must create a budget forecast of golf car revenue, expense, and profit. In order to do that, assumptions need to be made based upon the following criteria: annual car demand (rounds per car), number of cars in the fleet, rental fee per round, and acquisition costs for ownership vs. leasing. (p. 52-53)
A new course can get an “escalating lease” in which payments per car are lower in the first year with a specific amount added to the payment in each successive year. Usually, facilities should expect to pay more over the period of the lease. (p. 60)
For facilities that want the financial benefits of ownership but not the maintenance responsibilities, it is also possible to obtain service contracts or pay the manufacturer’s technicians by the hour. (p. 61)
A logical time to increase rates is when new cars are obtained for the fleet. (p. 62)